Friday, March 7, 2008

Chapter 11 National and Regonal Growth (1800-1844)

Chapter 11: National and Regional Growth 1800-1844
Section 1: Early Industry and Inventions
Main Idea: New machines and factories changed the way people lived and worked in the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain during the late 1700s. It involved the use of factory machines that replaced hand tools. Large-scale manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work. The factory system brought many workers and machines together under one roof. Most factories were built near water, which powered the machines. People left farms to work in factories. Many people did not want the United States to industrialize. However, during the War of 1812 the British blockade kept imported goods from reaching the United States. This forced Americans to start manufacturing their own goods. America built its first factories in New England. This region’s rivers provided water power. Ships had access to the ocean. There were many willing workers. Samuel Slater built his first spinning mill in Rhode Island in 1790 and hired whole families to work. In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell built a factory in Waltham, Massachusetts, that produced cotton yarn and cloth. The factory’s success led to the building of Lowell, a factory town the Merrimack and Concord rivers. The Lowell mills employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses and worked in deafening noise. In 1798, the U.S. government hired the inventor Eli Whitney to make 10,000 muskets for the army. Up until then, guns were made one at a time. In 1801, Whitney demonstrated the use of parts that were exactly alike, or interchangeable. Interchangeable parts made production faster. New inventions improved transportation and communication. Robert Fulton invented a steamboat that could move against the current or strong wind. In 1807, he launched the Clermont on the Hudson River. In 1816, Henry Miller Shreve designed a more powerful steam engine. Shreve started a new era of trade and transportation on the Mississippi River. In 1837, Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated the telegraph, which allowed messages to travel between cities in seconds. By 1861, telegraph lines spanned the country. Several inventions increased farm production. In 1836, John Deere invented a lightweight plow with a steel cutting edge. His invention made it easier for farmers to prepare heavy Midwestern soil for planting.
In 1834, Cyrus McCormick’s reaper cut ripe grain. The threshing machine separated kernels of wheat from husks. New farming equipment helped Midwestern farmers feed Northeastern factory workers. Midwestern farmers became a market for the goods manufactured in the Northeast. Northeastern textile mills increased the need for Southern cotton.
Section 2: Plantations and Slavery Spread
Main Idea: The invention of the cotton gin and the demand for cotton caused slavery to
spread in the South. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which allowed one worker to clean as much as 50 pounds of cotton a day. The cotton gin changed Southern life in four ways. First, cotton farming moved westward. Second, cotton became the number one crop. Third, more Native Americans were driven off Southern land as cotton plantations took over. Fourth, slavery continued as an important source of labor. Cotton production rose greatly between 1790 and 1860, as did the number of Southern slaves. As earnings from cotton rose, so did the price of slaves. Slavery divided white Southerners into those who held slaves and those who did not. Only about one-third of white Southern families owned slaves in 1840. Of these families, only about one-tenth had large plantations. Nevertheless, most white Southern farmers supported slavery. In 1840, about one-third of the South’s population was enslaved. About half of them worked on plantations. In cities, enslaved people worked as domestic servants, craftsmen, factory workers, and day laborers. About 8 percent of African Americans in the South were free, either by birth or by having bought their own freedom. Free blacks, however, faced many problems. By the early 1800s, African Americans on plantations had developed their own culture, which helped them survive the hardships of plantation life. Enslaved people expressed their religious beliefs in spirituals, or religious folk songs, that often contained coded messages. One of the cruelest parts of slavery was the selling of family members away from one another. Parents who lived away from their children often stole away to visit them, although they risked being whipped for doing so. Disobedience and escaping were ways of resisting slavery. Several armed rebellions took place in the early 1800s. The most famous was led by Nat Turner in 1831. Turner and 70 followers killed 55 white men, women, and children. Most of Turner’s followers were captured and 16 were killed. Turner was hanged. Southern whites killed more than 200 African Americans in revenge. States passed laws that kept blacks from having weapons or buying liquor. They could not hold religious services unless whites were present.
Section 3: Nationalism and Sectionalism
Main Idea: Patriotic pride united the states, but tension between the North and South emerged. In the early 1800s, nationalism, or feelings of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward the United States, pulled people of different regions together. Congressman Henry Clay, a strong nationalist, had a plan for unifying the country. This plan, the American System, had three parts. One: set up a protective tariff, a tax on foreign goods. Two: set up a national bank with a single currency. And three: improve the country’s transportation systems. Transportation improved in the first half of the 1800s. In 1806, Congress funded a road that eventually stretched west from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois. The building of the Erie Canal opened the upper Ohio River valley and the Great Lakes region to settlement and trade. Around the 1830s, steam-powered trains began to be used for transportation. By 1850, there were more than 9,000 miles of track across the United States. As nationalism increased, people became more loyal to the government. James Monroe won the presidential election in 1816 by a large majority of votes, leading one newspaper to call the times the Era of Good Feelings. Several Supreme Court decisions strengthened the power of the federal government. Feelings of nationalism also made U.S. leaders want to extend the country’s borders. An agreement with Britain helped set the U.S.-Canada border. However, the United States and Spain disagreed on the boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase and the ownership of West Florida. After U.S. general Andrew Jackson invaded Florida, Spain gave Florida to the United States in 1819. Sectionalism, or loyalty to a region, nevertheless caused conflict between the North, South, and West. Sectionalism became a major issue when Missouri applied for statehood in 1818. Acceptance of Missouri would have changed the balance of 11 slave states and 11 free states. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, suggested that Missouri be admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. His plan, known as the Missouri Compromise, kept the balance of power. The nation also felt threatened by Russian settlements along the west coast and by Spain and Portugal’s plan to take back some American colonies. In 1823, President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine. This warned European countries not to set up any more colonies in the Americas.